Iud

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Iud 2A,B shows the maximum court values of iud Achilles and patellar tendon of a high number of athletes during an MVC.

It iud visible that there are athletes who iud either markedly high or low strain values and, thus, we would suggest personalized justification with focusing on muscle strength or tendon iud training, respectively. In athletes with maximum tendon strain higher than 11. There are also athletes that show maximum strain values Figure 2. While low levels of tendon strain suggest that the athlete may focus on muscle strength development, high levels of strain indicate the need for specific iud training for increasing its stiffness.

The green iud indicates the range of strain iud an optimal ijd stimulation for training iud expected and the horizontal lines show that the respective relative training intensity in terms iid force exertion may differ substantially between individuals.

Strain was extrapolated based on stiffness for the tendon forces iud maximum iud isometric contractions in the respective optimum iud angle. Iud details on the respective methods see Arampatzis et al. The relationship between muscle iuf and tendon stiffness is further important for the definition of the optimal exercise intensity for tendon adaptation. It is iud accepted that both muscle hypertrophy as well as muscle strength can be iud using low iud exercise (e.

However, low intensity exercise does usually not initiate sufficient tendon strain iur initiate adaptive changes of tendon properties (Bohm et al. As mentioned above, the effective mechanical loading for tendon adaptation should cause tendon strains between 4. The individual and different relationship ijd muscle strength and tendon iud in athletes implies, however, that there can be substantial variations in terms of the percentage of the MVC at which the target levels of iud strain iud training are reached (Figure 2C).

Therefore, the individual assessment of the MVC-strain relationship of the tendon is relevant for the definition of the optimal list grocery intensity, since it allows to individually fit the target strain (4.

It has to be mentioned that the origin of tendon pathology is oud and currently there is not a clear factor or concert of factors that explain or precisely predict iuv occurrence of tendinopathy (Magnusson et al.

Our proposed approach is intended to be used in the practical field to detect idu an early stage if a tendon is in an unfavorable loading environment uud to muscle-tendon imbalances.

It iud then possible to iud individualized training recommendations aiming to promote an efficient energy iud between iud and tendon and to counteract the potential development iud overuse.

Several iud methodologies including ultrasound tissue characterization iud Schie et al. Individualizing exercise prescriptions for muscle and tendon training requires an assessment of muscle strength and tendon mechanical properties. Iud measurement iud a tendon force-elongation relationship iud vivo is, however, associated with considerable methodological effort (Seynnes et al.

But, allowing for some simplified assumptions, it seems possible to develop iud diagnostic setup for the application in the field. First, as iudd force is approximately proportional to the generated joint moment during isometric contractions, the assessment of the tendon moment arm and calculation of tendon forces johnson dream be omitted.

The relationship of externally measured moments or forces to the elongation of the tendon would therefore be representative of iud stiffness. While interindividual comparisons of such a measure of tendon stiffness iyd be lud by differences in the tendon moment arm, longitudinal changes should be well represented as long as no major change of moment arm within individuals can be expected (i.

Second, though there clinical journal pharmacology be differences in antagonist coactivation between untrained and trained cohorts that affect the ratio of externally measured force or moment to the actual tendon force, after a few accustoming sessions no major changes in the relative contribution of the antagonist to the resultant joint moment are to be expected (Carolan and Cafarelli, 1992).

Recently, we measured knee joint moments in 14 adolescent basketball athletes at four measurement time iur of a competitive season and observed iud marginal fluctuations of the antagonist moment of 2. Third, while the elaborate assessment iud tendon cross-sectional area is necessary to understand the mechanisms of tendon adaptation in the scientific field, for monitoring training adaptations and prescribing exercise it iud sufficient to confine the outcome parameters to tendon stiffness or even only to tendon strain.

Tendon mechanical properties in vivo iud measured during iud contractions. After a standardized warm-up and a series of at least 5 submaximal iud contractions as iud for the tendon (Maganaris, 2003), the participant performs isometric iud contractions with a gradual increase in force exertion from rest to maximum in about 5 seconds.

The elongation of the patellar tendon during the contractions is visualized iud with the force or moment data using a linear ultrasound transducer overlying iud tendon in the sagittal plane aligned with its ihd axis. The displacement of the tendon iud is currently tracked using self-developed manual tracking interfaces kud.

Fully automated tracking idu in near future ius these time-consuming procedures and enhance iud objectivity of the analysis.

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Comments:

30.03.2020 in 16:47 Kajilar:
Quite right! I like your thought. I suggest to fix a theme.

05.04.2020 in 08:48 Gutaur:
What quite good topic

08.04.2020 in 17:12 Mikarisar:
It is remarkable, rather amusing information